Jersey

Introduction Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. Jersey is a British crown dependency, but is not part of the UK. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.
History

Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England; the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years.

Evidence of bronze-age and early iron-age settlements can be found in many locations around the island. While archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, Les Landes, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Roman temple worship (fanum),[4] evidence for regular Roman occupation has yet to be established.

Formerly under the control of Brittany and named Angia (also spelled Agna [5]), Jersey became subject to Viking influence in the ninth century, one of the "Norman Islands". The name for Jersey itself is sourced from a Viking heritage: the Norse suffix -ey for island can be found in many places around the northern European coasts. However, the significance of the first part of the island's toponym is unclear. Among theories are that it derives from jarth (Old Norse: "earth") or jarl, or perhaps a personal name, Geirr, to give "Geirr's Island".[6] Alternatively support for a Celtic origin can be made with reference to the Gaulish gar- (oak), ceton (forest). It is also said to be a corruption of the Latin Caesarea, the Roman name for the island, influenced by Old English suffix -ey for "island";[7][8] this is plausible if regional pronunciation of Latin implied that Caesarea was not IPA: [kaisarea] but [tʃeːsarea].

The island was eventually annexed to the Duchy of Normandy by William Longsword, Duke of Normandy in 933; his descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England in 1066, which led to the Duchy of Normandy and the kingdom of England being governed under one monarch.[9] The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates on the island, and Norman families living on their estates founded many of the historical Norman-French Jersey family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey, along with Guernsey and the other Channel Islands; the islands have been internally self-governing since.[10]

Islanders became involved with the Newfoundland fisheries in the late sixteenth century.[11] In recognition for all the help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, Charles II gave George Carteret, bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named New Jersey, now part of the United States of America.[12][13]

Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England and France.[14] The Jersey way of life involved agriculture, fishing, shipbuilding, and production of woollen goods until nineteenth-century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the Island.

Jersey was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1 July 1940, and was held until 9 May 1945.

Geography Location: Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France
Geographic coordinates: 49 15 N, 2 10 W
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 116 sq km
land: 116 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative: about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 70 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers
Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 143 m
Natural resources: arable land
Land use: arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: NA
Geography - note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
Politics

Jersey's legislature is the States of Jersey. It includes fifty-three elected members: twelve senators (elected for six-year terms), twelve constables (heads of parishes elected for three-year terms), twenty-nine deputies (elected for three-year terms); the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff (appointed to preside over the assembly and having a casting vote in favour of the status quo when presiding); and three non-voting members (the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General) appointed by the Crown. Government departments are run by a cabinet of ministers under a Chief Minister. The civil head of the Island is the Bailiff.

All current States Members have been elected as independents. Formally constituted political parties are unfashionable, although groups of "like-minded members" act in concert. Senators are elected on an Island wide mandate and Deputies are elected in their local area.

The Jersey Democratic Alliance is the only party currently having States Members, although these were elected as independents. The Centre Party (Jersey) has committed to only proposing candidates for Senatorial elections, though members are free to, and have, stood for Deputy as independents. They would remain independent in the Chamber. Stuart Syvret is often reported to be of the Jersey Green Party.[16]

The legal system is based on Norman customary law (including the Clameur de Haro), statute and English law; justice is administered by the Royal Court.

Elizabeth II's traditional title as head of state is that of Duke of Normandy, but she does not hold that title formally. She reigns by her position as Queen over a crown dependency. Her representative in the island is the Lieutenant Governor, who has but a token involvement in island politics. Since 2006, the incumbent Lieutenant Governor has been Lieutenant General Andrew Ridgway.

People Population: 91,321 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.9% (male 8,003/female 7,428)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 30,586/female 30,853)
65 years and over: 15.8% (male 6,388/female 8,063) (2007 est.)
Median age: total: 41.9 years
male: 41.1 years
female: 42.6 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.244% (2007 est.)
Birth rate: 9.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate: 9.32 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate: 2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.077 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.991 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.792 male(s)/female
total population: 0.971 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.51 years
male: 77.02 years
female: 82.2 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.58 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Channel Islander(s)
adjective: Channel Islander
Ethnic groups: Jersey 51.1%, Britons 34.8%, Irish, French, and other white 6.6%, Portuguese/Madeiran 6.4%, other 1.1% (2001 census)
Religions: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian
Languages: English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)
Literacy: definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Country name: conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
conventional short form: Jersey
Dependency status: British crown dependency
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Saint Helier
geographic coordinates: 49 11 N, 2 06 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes including Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Quen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, and Trinity
Independence: none (British crown dependency)
National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Legal system: the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply and local statutes; justice is administered by the Royal Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Andrew RIDGEWAY (since 14 June 2006)
head of government: Chief Minister Frank WALKER (since December 2005); Bailiff Philip Martin BAILHACHE (since February 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet (since December 2005)
elections: ministers of the Cabinet including the chief minister are elected by the Assembly of States; the monarch is hereditary; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (58 seats; 55 are voting members, of which 12 are senators elected for six-year terms, 12 are constables or heads of parishes elected for three-year terms, 29 are deputies elected for three-year terms, the bailiff and the deputy bailiff, and 3 non-voting members includes the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General, and the Solicitor General appointed by the monarch)
elections: last held 19 October 2005 for senators and 23 November 2005 for deputies (next to be held in 2008)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 55
Judicial branch: Royal Court (judges elected by an electoral college and the bailiff)
Political parties and leaders: two declared parties: Centre Party; Jersey Democratic Alliance
note: all senators and deputies elected in 2005 were independents
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (British crown dependency)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (British crown dependency)
Flag description: white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with the three lions of England in yellow
Culture

Until the nineteenth century, indigenous Jèrriais — a variety of Norman French — was the language of the island, though French was used for official business. During the twentieth century, however, an intense language shift took place and Jersey today is predominantly English-speaking. Jèrriais nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive Jèrriais in schools, and the highest number of declared Jèrriais speakers is in the capital.

The dialects of Jèrriais differ in phonology and, to a lesser extent, lexis between parishes, with the most marked differences to be heard between those of the west and east. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation of the toponymy increased apace with the migration of English people to the island.

Some Neolithic carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist reformation of the sixteenth century.

Printing arrived in Jersey only in the 1780s, but the Island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the nineteenth century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished (see Jèrriais literature).

John Everett Millais, Elinor Glyn, and Wace are among Jersey's artistic figures. Lillie Langtry, the Jersey Lily, is the Island's most widely recognised cultural icon. The famous French writer, Victor Hugo, lived in exile in Jersey from 1852 to 1855.

The Island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902.[42]. Annual music festivals include Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, Jersey Live, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod. Other festivals include La Fête dé Noué (Christmas festival), La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (cidermaking festival), the Battle of Britain air display, food festivals, and Parish events.

The Island's patron saint is Saint Helier.

Economy Economy - overview: Jersey's economy is based on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. In 2005 the finance sector accounted for about 50% of the island's output. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries. Tourism accounts for one-quarter of GDP. In recent years, the government has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular tax haven. Living standards come close to those of the UK.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $5.1 billion (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: NA%
GDP - per capita (PPP): $57,000 (2005 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 1%
industry: 2%
services: 97% (2005)
Labor force: 53,560 (June 2006)
Unemployment rate: 2.2% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (December 2006)
Budget: revenues: $829 million
expenditures: $851 million (2005)
Agriculture - products: potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products
Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Electricity - consumption: 630.1 million kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by France
Exports: $NA
Exports - commodities: light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles
Exports - partners: UK (2006)
Imports: $NA
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners: UK (2006)
Debt - external: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): Jersey pound
note: the British pound is also legal tender
Currency code: GBP
Exchange rates: Jersey pounds per US dollar - 0.4993 (2007), 0.5418 (2006), 0.5493 (2005), 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003)
note: the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Communications Telephones - main lines in use: 73,900 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 83,900 (2004)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey and UK
Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: NA
Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)
Televisions: NA
Internet country code: .je
Internet hosts: 2,219 (2007)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA
Internet users: 27,000 (2005)
Transportation Airports: 1 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways: total: 577 km
Ports and terminals: Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier
Military Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
Transnational Issues Disputes - international: none