San Marino

Introduction The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy; social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.
History

According to tradition, Saint Marinus left the island of Rab in Croatia with his lifelong friend Leo and went to the town of Rimini as a mason. After persecution because of his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and the state of San Marino. The official date of foundation of the Republic is 3 September 301.

By the mid-5th century, a community was formed; because of its relatively inaccessible location and its poverty, it has succeeded, with a few brief interruptions, in maintaining its independence. In 1631 its independence was recognized by the Papacy.

During the early phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, San Marino served as a refuge for numerous persons who were persecuted because of their support for the unification. In memory of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state. Napoleon refused to take the country. When asked why, he allegedly commented, "Why? It's a model republic!"

The government of San Marino made United States President Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that "government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring."

In World War I, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915. San Marino declared war on Austria-Hungary on 3 June 1915.

During WWII, San Marino initially declared war on Britain. Then when Italy surrendered San Marino declared neutrality. September 21, 1944 San Marino declared war on Germany.

The head of state is a committee (council) of two captains-regent. San Marino also had the world's first democratically-elected communist government, which held office between 1945 and 1957.

San Marino was the world's smallest republic from 301 to 1968, until Nauru gained independence.

San Marino became a member of the Council of Europe in 1988 and of the United Nations in 1992. It is not a member of the European Union.

Geography Location: Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates: 43 46 N, 12 25 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 61.2 sq km
land: 61.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative: about one third times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
Terrain: rugged mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources: building stone
Land use: arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: NA
Environment - current issues: NA
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
Geography - note: landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
Politics

The politics of San Marino takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Captains Regent are the heads of state, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

San Marino was originally led by the Arengo, initially formed with the heads of each family. In the 13th century, power was given to the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council. This method of nomination is still in use today, as of 2008.

The legislature of the republic is the Grand and General Council (Consiglio grande e generale). The Council is a unicameral legislature which has 60 members with elections occurring every 5 years under a proportional representation system in all nine administrative districts. These districts (townships) correspond to the old parishes of the republic. Citizens eighteen years or older are eligible to vote. Besides general legislation, the Grand and General Council approves the budget and elects the Captains Regent, the State Congress (composed of 10 Secretaries with executive power), the Council of Twelve (which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Council), the Advising Commissions, and the Government Unions. The Council also has the power to ratify treaties with other countries. The Council is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of 15 councilors which examine, propose, and discuss the implementation of new laws that are on their way to being presented on the floor of the Council. Every 6 months, the Council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state. The Regents are chosen from opposing parties so there is a balance of power. They serve a 6-month term. The investiture of the Captains Regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October in every year. Once this term is over, citizens have 3 days in which to file complaints about the Captains' activities. If they warrant it, judicial proceedings against the ex-head(s) of state can be initiated.

The practice of multiple heads of state, as well as the frequent re-election of the heads of state, are derived directly from the customs of the Roman Republic. The Council is equivalent to the Roman Senate; the Captains Regent, to the consuls of ancient Rome.

San Marino is a multi-party democratic republic. The two main parties are the San Marinese Christian Democratic Party (PDCS) and the Party of Socialists and Democrats (PSD, a merger of the Socialist Party of San Marino and the former communist Party of Democrats) in addition to several other smaller parties, such as the San Marinese Communist Refoundation. Due to the small size of San Marino and its low population, it is difficult for any party to gain a pure majority and most of the time the government is run by a coalition. In the June 2006 election the PSD won 20 seats on the Council and currently governs in coalition with the (liberal) Popular Alliance of Sammarinese Democrats for the Republic and United Left.

People Population: 29,973 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 16.8% (male 2,608/female 2,430)
15-64 years: 66% (male 9,464/female 10,304)
65 years and over: 17.2% (male 2,229/female 2,938) (2008 est.)
Median age: total: 41.2 years
male: 40.9 years
female: 41.6 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.181% (2008 est.)
Birth rate: 9.74 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate: 8.37 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate: 10.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 5.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.88 years
male: 78.43 years
female: 85.64 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups: Sammarinese, Italian
Religions: Roman Catholic
Languages: Italian
Literacy: definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%
Education expenditures: NA
Government Country name: conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
Government type: republic
Capital: name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
Independence: 3 September AD 301
National holiday: Founding of the Republic, 3 September (AD 301)
Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Federico Pedini AMATI and Captain Regent Rosa ZAFFERANI (for the period 1 April-30 September 2008)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 27 July 2006)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2007 (next to be held in March 2008); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 27 July 2006 (next to be held by 2011)
election results: Mirko TOMASSONI and Alberto SELVA elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Fiorenzo STOLFI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 June 2006 (next to be held by June 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 32.9%, Party of Socialists and Democrats 31.9%, AP 11.9%, United Left 8.7%, New Socialist Party 5.4%, other parties 9.2%; seats by party - PDCS 21, Party of Socialists and Democrats 20, AP 7, United Left 5, New Socialist Party 3, others 4; note - following a government reshuffle on 28 November 2007, a splinter party of the PDCS joined the center-left coalition formed by the Party of Socialists and Democrats, the APDS, and the United Left strengthening the government's parliamentary majority to 36 seats out of 60
Judicial branch: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Political parties and leaders: Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [Glauco SANSOVINI]; New Socialist Party [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Pier Marino MENICUCCI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or AP [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Alberto CECCHETTI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]; United Left
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: CE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
chancery: 888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: 202-337-2260
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)
Culture

The Three Towers of San Marino are located on the three peaks of Monte Titano in the capital. They are depicted on both the Flag of San Marino and its coat of arms. The three towers are: Guaita, the oldest of the three (it was constructed in the eleventh century); the thirteenth-century Cesta, located on the highest of Monte Titano's summits; and the fourteenth-century Montale, on the smallest of Monte Titano's summits, still privately owned.

San Marino has a famous cake known as La Torta Di Tre Monti ("Cake of the Three Mountains/Towers"), similar to a layered wafer cake covered in Chocolate.

Love Orchestra, a Gian Luca "Luke" Mazza new age music project, comes from the Republic of San Marino. During concerts overseas, the San Marino flag is shown on the stage.

Economy Economy - overview: The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 2006 more than 2.1 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, clothing and apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $850 million (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.048 billion (2004)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $34,100 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force: 20,470 (2004)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 40.1%
services: 59.7% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.8% (2004)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $709.6 million
expenditures: $672.3 million (2004)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.5% (2006)
Commercial bank prime lending rate: 7.58% (31 December 2007)
Stock of money: $1.326 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money: $4.584 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit: $7.513 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture - products: wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
Industries: tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (2005 est.)
Exports: $1.291 billion (2004)
Exports - commodities: building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
Imports: $2.035 billion (2004)
Imports - commodities: wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
Economic aid - recipient: $NA
Debt - external: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Currency (code): euro (EUR)
Currency code: EUR
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Communications Telephones - main lines in use: 21,000 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 17,390 (2006)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate connections
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
Televisions: 9,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .sm
Internet hosts: 6,665 (2008)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 15,400 (2006)
Transportation Roadways: total: 292 km
paved: 292 km (2006)
Military Military branches: no regular military forces; Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 16-55 for voluntary service in Voluntary Military Force (2006)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 6,613 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 5,345 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 156
female: 154 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures: NA
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Italy
Transnational Issues Disputes - international: none