Anguilla

Introduction Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency, along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.
History

Anguilla was first settled by Amerindian tribes who migrated from South America. The earliest Amerindian artefacts found on Anguilla have been dated to around 1300 BC, and remains of settlements date from 600 AD.[1] The date of European discovery is uncertain: some sources claim that Columbus sighted the island in 1493, while others state that the island was first discovered by the French in 1564 or 1565.[2] The name Anguilla derives from the word for "eel" in any of various Romance languages (modern Spanish: anguila; French: anguille; Italian: anguilla), probably chosen because of the island's eel-like shape.

Anguilla was first colonised by English settlers from Saint Kitts, beginning in 1650. Other early arrivals included Europeans from Antigua and Barbados. It is likely that some of these early Europeans brought enslaved Africans with them. Historians confirm that African slaves lived in the region in the early seventeenth century. For example, Africans from Senegal lived in St. Christopher (today St. Kitts) in 1626. By 1672 a slave depot existed on the island of Nevis, serving the Leeward Islands. While the time of African arrival in Anguilla is difficult to place precisely, archive evidence indicates a substantial African presence (at least 100) on the island by 1683.

The island was administered by England, and later the United Kingdom, until the early nineteenth century when – against the wishes of the inhabitants – it was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. After two rebellions in 1967 and 1969 and brief period as a self-declared independent republic headed by Ronald Webster, British rule was fully restored in 1969. Anguilla became a separate British dependency (now termed a British overseas territory) in 1980.

Geography Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W
Map references: Central America and the Caribbean
Area: total: 102 sq km
land: 102 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 61 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m
Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster
Land use: arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds) (2005)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
Geography - note: the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles
Politics

Anguilla is an internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom. Its politics takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic dependency, whereby the Chief Minister is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.

The United Nations Committee on Decolonisation includes Anguilla on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. The territory's constitution is Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982 (amended 1990). Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the House of Assembly. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Military defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom.

People Population: 13,677 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 22.3% (male 1,546/female 1,502)
15-64 years: 70.8% (male 4,979/female 4,705)
65 years and over: 6.9% (male 423/female 522) (2007 est.)
Median age: total: 31.6 years
male: 31.6 years
female: 31.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.375% (2007 est.)
Birth rate: 13.97 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate: 5.34 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate: 5.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.029 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.058 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.033 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 19.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 25.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 77.46 years
male: 74.53 years
female: 80.49 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan
Ethnic groups: black (predominant) 90.1%, mixed, mulatto 4.6%, white 3.7%, other 1.5% (2001 Census)
Religions: Anglican 29%, Methodist 23.9%, other Protestant 30.2%, Roman Catholic 5.7%, other Christian 1.7%, other 5.2%, none or unspecified 4.3% (2001 census)
Languages: English (official)
Literacy: definition: age 12 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 95%
female: 95% (1984 est.)
Government Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Anguilla
Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK
Government type: NA
Capital: name: The Valley
geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)
Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990
Legal system: based on English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Andrew N. GEORGE (since 10 July 2006)
head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March 2000)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; 7 members elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members, and 2 appointed; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 21 February 2005 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - AUF 38.9%, AUM 19.4%, ANSA 19.2%, APP 9.5%, independents 13%; seats by party - AUF 4, ANSA 2, AUM 1
Judicial branch: High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)
Political parties and leaders: Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Hubert HUGHES]; The Anguilla United Front or AUF [Osbourne FLEMING, Victor BANKS] (a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA); Anguilla Progressive Party or APP [Roy ROGERS]; Anguilla Strategic Alternative or ANSA [Edison BAIRD]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below
Culture

The Anguilla National Trust (ANT) was established in 1993 to preserve the heritage of the island, including its cultural heritage. The Trust has programmes encouraging Anguillan writers and the preservation of the island's history.

The island's cultural history begins with the Arawak Indians. Artifacts have been found around the island, telling of life before European settlers arrived.

As throughout the Caribbean, holidays are a cultural fixture. Anguilla's most important holidays are of historic as much as cultural importance – particularly the anniversary of the emancipation (previously August Monday in the Park), celebrated as the Summer Festival. British holidays, such as the Queen's birthday, are also celebrated.

Economy Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector, has contributed to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small, but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $108.9 million (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): $108.9 million (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 10.2% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $8,800 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 78% (2002 est.)
Labor force: 6,049 (2001)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%, manufacturing 3%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, commerce 36%, services 29% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8% (2002)
Population below poverty line: 23% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (2006 est.)
Budget: revenues: $22.8 million
expenditures: $22.5 million (2000 est.)
Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising
Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services
Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production: NA kWh
Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA
hydro: NA
nuclear: NA
other: NA
Current account balance: -$42.87 million (2003 est.)
Exports: $13 million (2006)
Exports - commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum
Exports - partners: UK, US, Puerto Rico, Saint-Martin (2006)
Imports: $143 million (2006)
Imports - commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles
Imports - partners: US, Puerto Rico, UK (2006)
Economic aid - recipient: $9 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external: $8.8 million (1998)
Currency (code): East Caribbean dollar (XCD)
Currency code: XCD
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003)
note: fixed rate since 1976
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Communications Telephones - main lines in use: 6,200 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,800 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: NA
domestic: modern internal telephone system
international: country code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 7, shortwave 0 (2004)
Radios: 3,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)
Televisions: 1,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .ai
Internet hosts: 319 (2007)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)
Internet users: 3,000 (2002)
Transportation Airports: 3 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Roadways: total: 175 km
paved: 82 km
unpaved: 93 km (2004)
Ports and terminals: Blowing Point, Road Bay
Military Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 3,614 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 2,986 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 120 (2005 est.)
Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
Transnational Issues Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe